World Economic Forum – Code of Ethics for Researchers

I am super eager to share with everyone about the Code of Ethics for Researchers that was recently launched at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos 2018. Last week, at Davos, a panel of esteemed scientists, science communicators, and WEF’s Young Scientists launched a universal Code of Ethics for Researchers. You can view the discussion session here.

WEF Code of Ethics for Researchers

In 2016, my first participation at the Annual Meeting of New Champions, Tianjin, China was also when WEF first held the discussions of developing Code of Ethics for Researchers with the Young Scientist Community. A familiar example is the Hippocratic Oath of medical doctors, where incoming physicians take the oath of upholding specific ethical standards with respect to treating humans. After two years of extensive discussions at meetings and via the online platforms, the first edition of the Code of Ethics is now launched for exploring and endorsing!

The Principles in the Code of Ethics:

  • Engage with the public
  • Pursue the truth
  • Minimize harm
  • Engage with decision-makers
  • Support diversity
  • Be a mentor
  • Be accountable

Download the Code of Ethics here.

As a Young Scientist in the community, we have had several interesting discussions over the issues such as science deniers, fake news, public engagement, trust in science, and other similar concerns. We strongly felt the need to give our stand on our views, and this formed the motivation of why the Code is needed. The excerpt from the website neatly summarises our reflections as a community.

As society gains access to more sources of information and diverging opinions, and as a growing number of reports are throwing the reliability of scientific research into question, scientists are under scrutiny, questioned and mistrusted. This new context gives rise to redefining the social and moral contracts that bind researchers to society and infusing it with the most irreproachable behaviours. Moreover, in an era in which leaders publicly question the consensus of the scientific community, upholding the highest standards of research practice is more important than ever. Any corruption of the scientific process impacts the perceived credibility of important contributions to knowledge, making it harder to engage with the general public, and affecting the ability of scientists to translate discoveries into practical solutions or public policies.

Codes of ethics seek to safeguard these high standards of behaviours and practices. Many examples exist, but so far no code of conduct or ethics that is interdisciplinary and global in its perspective has achieved universal uptake.

The World Economic Forum Young Scientists Community — a group of leading researchers under the age of 40 from diverse fields and all regions of the world — came together to identify and reflect on the cross-cutting ethical issues they are faced with. This universal Code of Ethics is the result of their extensive reflections and consultations with researchers and ethicists. It serves as a tool to nurture a positive change of culture in the research world by not only guiding and shaping the behaviour of individuals but also the processes of the scientific institutions that are to facilitate this cultural shift.

I hope that you will support and endorse this universal Code of Ethics for Researchers! While I admit that it may not be possible to adhere to all of the Principles, I believe small efforts count towards making science trustworthy, accessible and friendly! This is particularly important for civil society, who represents the biggest group of people to reach out and persuade them that science and technology can improve lives and the environment.

More importantly, for the civil society, I hope to reach out and say that these are some guiding principles that we, as researchers, want to follow to our best, and engage meaningfully with you in science.

To view the WEF Code of Ethics for Researchers, please visit this link:


I just popped a GIANT paper!

After an incubation period of almost 3.5 years long, I’m a proud ‘mom’ of this new OpenAccess publication 🙂

Neo et al. (2017) Chapter 4. Giant Clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae): A Comprehensive Update of Species and Their Distribution, Current Threats and Conservation Status. Oceanography and Marine Biology – An Annual Review. Volume 55. Pp. 87-388.

What started out as a desire to produce an erratum for an earlier review paper has turned into a monster paper (301 pages)! Throughout the process, I felt like a detective – spending hours mulling over every piece of evidence, and snowballing my clues from paper to paper. I spoke to people via emails, and anyone who would give me an inkling of ‘where can I find giant clams?’ I trawled through thousands of photographs and identified each one of them to species. At the end of my compilation, I needed the other experts to verify my findings and I’m so very thankful for their utmost contribution and commitment. Without my precious collaborators, this work would not have been the most solid foundation for advancing knowledge on the giant clams.

From here on, I hope that our paper will serve its purpose and help many other scientists, managers, and public members to view these amazing animals through my lenses. 😀

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The Story of Shells – Part 1

Disclaimer: Opinions are mine.

‘South China Sea’ and ‘Giant clams’ are possibly two key phrases that have been connected on many occasions in just 2016 alone. Some of you may have read how the widespread poaching of giant clam shells in the South China Sea caused the wipeout and massive destruction of reefs.

Almost exactly one year ago, on 30 November 2016, the Hainan Province had decided to amend their existing ‘Republic of China Marine Environment Protection Act’ and the ‘Republic of China Wild Animal Protection Act’ to include both coral reefs and giant clams. This also meant a province-wide ban on the sale of corals and giant clams beginning on 1 January 2017. Although ground observations pointed out that the sale of giant clams has always been illegal with weak enforcement.

Beyond the borders of Hainan Province, authorities on mainland China have intercepted a shipment of giant clam products, reported in September 2017. The brief article pointed out that ‘giant clams listed as a Class I state-protected animal in China’ – also learning that the pandas are listed on this same category! What a vast difference in ‘protection levels’ between them!

My interest in this subject matter began when my colleagues from the Centre for International Law (NUS) invited me to discuss about topographic features of South China Sea (i.e. mapping of reefs). I began to do some research on my own about the shells and industry, with the help of my senior mentors such as Professor Ed Gomez.

There were plenty of information from both the English- and Chinese-based media, and I saw a problem. I realised that the majority of readers have formed a (very) negative image of the Chinese and blamed them for what happened in the South China Sea and the giant clams. Lucky for me, I can read English and Chinese (yes, in Singapore, we learn two languages as kids!), my colleague and I read lengthy forum posts on how there were many Chinese people (and scientists) who were equally outraged by what was done in the South China Sea and the giant clams.

And so, I decided to make my way to see the famous ‘giant clam’ village for myself. This trip would not have been possible if it were not for my gung-ho collaborator and guide. What you will see here on is my photo-essay of the two-day trip in August 2016 to Tanmen Fishing Port on Hainan Island, just a few months before the announcement of the sale ban. [P.S: I did felt like a detective snooping around! 😛 ]

This is my story of the giant clams in the South China Sea…

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This simple monument marks the entrance to the Tanmen Centre Fishing Port.

The weather was dry and warm. Then again, Hainan’s weather does not get very cold even during winter season. My companion and I arrived in Boao (博鳌镇), which is approximately 10 km to our intended destination – Tanmen (谭门镇). I remembered feeling very nervous and jumpy because we met with difficulties in getting transport into the town, and we were constantly being ‘cheated’ of our fares. I remembered also feeling excited at the prospects of what I would see first-hand in this town.

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A traditional fishing town, this is the fishing vessel used for long-range fishing in the South China Sea. The light bulbs on the second deck are iconic features of these vessels. This vessel specifically flies the Chinese Flag State.

Tanmen fishing port is the largest fishing port on Hainan Island, as rated by China’s National Agriculture Bureau. It is also a distribution centre of marine products in Hainan. As we walked along the pavement next to the mouth of the sea, we saw the fishing boats lining the port – no signs of fishing. I later found out that there is a mandatory annual fishing ban between April/May to October in the South China Sea to allow for recovery of fish stocks. The fishermen would go fishing in the South China Sea, which is a very long way from home. Often, they would have to live on their boat for almost a month long before returning home with their catch.

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Photographs here depicting the old looks of Tanmen Bay, which includes fishing and aquaculture-like facilities.

Flabbergasted is a word that I would not use lightly but it is appropriate for what I am about to describe. We saw streets after streets of shops filled with nothing but handicrafts made of giant clam shells. It was said that the rise of the giant clam handicraft industry also saw the number of retailers increased from 15 in 2012 to a whooping 460 in 2015. By 2015, this industry was supporting nearly 100,000 people, according to estimates.

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Today, the town has transformed into a shopping district with consecutive shops selling giant clam shell handicrafts and jewelry.

We popped into a few retailers and began to converse with them about the industry – how and when they had started their businesses, and to hear pride in their voices when talking about these Hainan giant clams. It was like the ‘gold rush’, only that this was a ‘clam rush’. 🙂 As I was browsing their products, I was also admiring the craftsmanship that was put into each item. Many of these products reflect the strong and rich history of Chinese cultures, and are symbols of wealth, health, luck, and prosperity. They are also attractive as display ornaments.

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Retailers taking different marketing approach to attract clients. The text says, in brief, that giant clams, a precious organic gem, are considered one of the seven treasures in the Buddhist scriptures ‘Jin Gang Jing’. It has calming powers, and also used for praying purposes.
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Intricate carvings that still resemble the giant clam shells, portraying typical icons of religion (L) or scenes from ancient China (R).
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Giant clam shells are ‘graded’ based on its location, colours, and translucency. The ‘blood-red giant clam’ (top L) was most valuable, followed by purple, orange, dull green, yellow, and white. Buddhist prayer 108-beads (top R) and large carvings (bottom) are examples of handicrafts.
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Retailers also show their prized craftsmanship that are not for sale, but demonstrates the quality of their products. Here shows the Goddess of Mercy that won the Silver Prize for China’s Jade Stone Carving Award with certification.
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The 18 Arhats (十八罗汉) depicted in carvings on giant clam shells were intricate, exquisite and expensive. They are the original followers of Buddha, and are charged to protect the Buddhist faith. In China, the 18 arhats are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
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Various animal lucky charms, from Arowana fish and frogs to imitating elephant ivory tusks. All symbols are iconic to the Chinese culture and beliefs of affluence and luck.
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Top: Apart from the Tridacna species of giant clams, I also found Hippopus species on display. Bottom: The lowest grade and quality of giant clam shells (white and opaque) are rapidly transformed into beads for wholesale distribution. The room was filled to the brim with bags and bags of threaded beads waiting for buyers.
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Spying the cabinets, I found coral skeletons also being used to make pendants. It’s hard not to miss the unique corallite shape. Retailer says that they are not as popular as those made from giant clams.
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Business appeared slow. This shop was closed for holiday, and used cardboards to cover their products. I was unsure why the need to cover their products, but heard that authorities were slowly clamping down on businesses.
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Jack of all trades – these retailers selling bicycle parts and strings of beads made from giant clam shells.
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Like breadcrumbs, we followed the trail of broken beads along the beach. It was clear that these beads did not make the cut to be put on the shelves.

By the fourth retailer, I was already exhausted. The shops began to look very similar to each other. The shops were selling very similar items. My companion and I then wandered off the fancy streets and into the housing areas. There, something caught my eye – the trails of broken white beads. As I followed them like breadcrumbs, they led me to a huge puddle of them laying abandoned. Eventually, we were standing in front of a warehouse that was surrounded by piles of fossilised giant clam shells. They were covered with sheets, seemingly trying to hide from view. We were shortly ‘chased away’ by the foreman…

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The beads led us to this massive stockpile of yet-to-be processed giant clam shells that appear to stretch for forever.
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Capturing behind the scenes in a small processing factory.
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Given the hardness of these shells, I found an angle grinder used to cut them into smaller pieces for carving and moulding.

To have this opportunity to speak and meet the people driving the industry was insightful for me. Admittedly, the methods used to harvest these raw materials was harmful and destructive to the environment in the South China Sea, but the industry became an important element supporting the livelihoods of people living in Tanmen. This is a conservation dilemma…

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A crafts master shared with me that he only carves white cabbages (白菜), which symbolises wealth and prosperity.
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Not just hand-made, some of the items were created using computerised printing. It reminded me of the 3D printer.
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The living were not spared. I found the shells of freshly poached giant clams and hard corals hidden in a dark room. The clean inner surfaces of shells and lacking thickness suggest that they were recently dead. In most instances, the fossilised giant clam shells rarely come intact and with complete paired shell valves.

From a scientific point of view, it was a good opportunity to have been on the ground and surveying the industry. It was exciting to pose as a potential buyer and talk to the locals to find out more about the products and what made them so proud of their giant clams. It was sad to see the vast numbers of giant clam shells on the streets and in the factories. It was interesting to observe these raw materials first-hand and how they were transformed into beautiful pieces of articles.

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The limited source of ‘blood-red’ giant clam makes them highly sought-after and valuable to retailers and buyers. 
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Trapped Hippopus spp. shells in crates.
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We wandered into a medium-sized factory and stumbled upon even more piles of raw materials: fossilised giant clam shells. I can only imagine the sheer number of giant clams that once lived in the South China Sea that were first harvested as food and now for their shells.
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These shells were dredged up from the bottom of seabed and coral reefs in the South China Sea. In the process, this destroyed large areas of coral reefs.
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Semi-processed shells comprising at least four species of giant clams: Hippopus hippopus, Hippopus porcellanus, Tridacna derasa, and Tridacna gigas.
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Corals under cover.
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An advertisement board sharing the cultural value of giant clams. A unique aspect was the comparison with western culture using the Birth of Venus.
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The China’s president famous visit to Tanmen Port in 2013 that was said to have spurred the fishing exploits to the South China Sea.

This is the first part of my insights of the industry. Stay tune for Part 2 of my story that will elaborate why these giant clam shells are significant in the Chinese cultures, the value and quality of giant clam-based products, and interview bits and blobs with the local crafts masters and shop owners.

Singapore got marine biologists meh?

Singapore got marine biologists meh?

I get this question a lot! It would rank in my top three FAQ over my not-so-long career, apart from ‘Why giant clams?!’ Well, that’s another story for another day! 😉

Given that SO MUCH has happened for the marine science scene in Singapore over the past two years, I feel it is timely to share our research work as a community, and how we intend to strengthen marine science research in Singapore and the region. But first, watch this video of my colleagues talking about why they chose a marine science career!

Want to know more about the daily musings of marine scientists? Check out the other videos here!

Under the leadership of programme director, Professor Peter Ng, this is the latest effort of the Marine Science R&D Programme (MSRDP) office in promoting careers in marine science and to encourage the younger generation to take up studies in marine science in Singapore. The National Research Foundation (Singapore) has invested $25 million over five years for the MSRDP, which targets to augment local talent development in marine science research through training, internships, collaborative partnerships with agencies and industries.

In short, the focus is on capacity-building!

22 different projects are currently being supported and funded by these grants, as well as the establishment of the St. John’s Island marine station to a national research institute, and renamed St. John’s Island National Marine Laboratory. (duh! 😉 ) [P.S: I can still remember the time when we all thought that we were going to lose our only marine station in Singapore. Read more here and here.]

To help our young ones get the necessary training and education, there are a number of scholarships/fellowships (and internships!) that will be made available across various age groups. Here are some listed (UPDATED 17 January 2018):

Undergraduates/Diploma/JC students:

  • National University of Singapore (NUS), Faculty of Science, MSRDP Overseas Programme Award [Suitable for Undergraduates only. More details will be made available at a later date.]
  • EXPLORE Young Marine Scientists Award [Suitable for ALL categories]
  • FREE Online course on Marine and Antarctic Science by Professor Craig Johnson and Dr Jess Melbourne-Thomas (University of Tasmania [Suitable for ALL categories]



  • National Research Foundation (Singapore), International Collaborative Fellowship for the Commonwealth (Collaboration with Royal Society UK) [Details here]

For those who are keen to join us on this (arduous) journey of being a marine biologist in Singapore – well, you’re in luck! Through my work, I learnt about the numerous and different local institutions that do marine science work in Singapore. Learn more about them at their home websites. [Disclaimer: This is not an exhaustive list!]

Also, a number of local institutions are now offering courses related to marine sciences such as:

Advice from one marine biologist to an aspiring marine biologist

Don’t give up easily. This is likely the MOST cliché and overused phrase, but hey! I walked the path, and I’m still on it because I didn’t give up easily. It may look like a glamorous and amazing job – we had to work hard for everything and at times, bear the harsh forces of weather elements.

I am blessed and fortunate to have achieved much in my career, and while it is decorated with honours and awards, I had my fair share of challenges, insecurity, and self-doubt. The definition of a marine biologist differs among individuals. For me, it was to become a skilled marine biologist, where I had gone through rigorous training of research skills, fieldwork, statistics, a lot of independent learning and thinking, as well as leadership and management. A fellow marine biologist shared her experience here, and tells of how it wasn’t an easy journey for her too.

However, I knew I had to keep trying if I wanted to succeed. I had to keep trying if my experiments failed. I had to keep trying if my proposals failed. I had to keep trying because I wanted to reach my purpose – to protect this fragile marine ecosystem.

Have faith in what you do, and know that whatever you choose to do – you have, at least, taken the first step towards becoming a marine biologist. Good luck!

Plastic Oceans, Plastic Seafood

War on Ocean Plastics

The United Nations (UN) Environment has declared ‘war’ on ocean plastics.

According to the UN, more than 8 million tonnes of plastic ends up in the oceans each year, harming marine wildlife, fisheries and tourism, and costing at least $8 billion in damage to marine ecosystems. Almost 80% of all litter in our oceans is made of plastics!

Pieces of plastic in the ocean will soon outnumber fish…

Credits to: UN Environment

Continue reading “Plastic Oceans, Plastic Seafood”

World Economic Forum – Young Scientists Science Communication Workshop

Thank you to the World Economic Forum (WEF) for having taken up our idea and hosted a fantastic science communication workshop for the Young Scientists in London last week! I like to also introduce the WEF’s Young Scientists (YS) community briefly and my experiences being one! Continue reading “World Economic Forum – Young Scientists Science Communication Workshop”

TEDxSingapore Salon Event

TEDxSingapore Salon Event – 20 May 2017. Credits: TEDxSingapore FaceBook page.

Throwback to TEDxSingapore Salon Event last month at Collision 8! It was their first ever live broadcast via FaceBook Live! In this interview, I shared my first time experience at TED2017, my journey as a TED Fellow, and my work life as a marine biologist. You can catch my interview with Gillian (TEDxSingapore curator) by clicking on the video below! 🙂

2017 class of TED Fellows and Senior Fellows



I’m a little late in sharing the wonderful news, but I am thoroughly thrilled to be selected as a TED Fellow to take the stage at TED2017 this coming April in Vancouver, BC! Together with myself, there are 14 other aspiring young innovators from four continents, who will also deliver their talks on the TED stage.

I wish to send a big thank you to the TED Team, my colleagues and friends for their heartiest support and well-wishes on my Fellowship. I am highly encouraged to know that I will have the opportunity to present my ideas and work on such a great platform!

I have also been asked: What is my motivation on applying to be a TED Fellow? What do I hope to accomplish as a Fellow in the upcoming year? So here are some of my thoughts about what becoming a TED Fellow means to me… 🙂 Continue reading “2017 class of TED Fellows and Senior Fellows”

Hainan bans the sale of giant clams

News have surfaced from within China that Hainan has now put a widespread ban on the sale of giant clam shells, particularly those found in Tanmen Village. Articles report that as of 1 January 2017, Hainan Island began the ban of sale, purchase, and use of corals, giant clams and other handicraft. (See Chinese article here)

In 2013, the local government (presumably Hainan) strongly supported the trade of giant clam shells, making it a pillar industry in Tanmen Village and provided work for thousands living in the village. However, in 2015, within a short span of 2 years, the support of the industry has turned to prohibition, and finally a total ban. (Translated materials)

A factory in Tanmen with mounts of fossilised giant clam shells.

On 30 November 2016, the Hainan Provincial Counsel passed the bill of “Hainan’s Coral and Giant Clam Protection Regulations”, which states the ban beginning 1 January 2017. Since the ban, the shops have reportedly removed the items and stopped selling giant clam shell products, whilst others have ‘closed down’. It is estimated that the ban will cause the loss of livelihoods of almost 10,000 people. (Translated materials) Continue reading “Hainan bans the sale of giant clams”

Why did the giant clam cross the road?

Wait a minute – Giant clams walk?!

It is surprising for most people to imagine how giant clams could ‘walk’ around on the reef. When you see a giant clam on coral reefs, you would think that such a large animal like this cannot move very fast on its own. In fact, most people have usually described the adult giant clams as sedentary (or sessile) for the rest of its life!

Mama Jong Clam has remained in her same spot for the last 10 years of monitoring. Photos by Neo ML.

Continue reading “Why did the giant clam cross the road?”